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Monday, August 22, 2011

LET MOVE AFRICAN PEOPLE TO THE NEXT LEVEL

BY DENNIS MOOT
My heart bleeds and has little words to say. But the blood and toil of our fore fathers cannot go in vain. Today, thousands of people are dying in the horn of Africa due to famine and in plain words food and water. Won't this situation been saved if we were one people, one continent? We have the largest forest reserves and plantation and food in the world, yet thousands of people die. Thousands who are equally innocent people are dying because of freedom and democracy. How important is democracy without people and a country? Couldn't African managed its own affairs and settled this situation should we have been on people and one continent?

I live you with a thousand questions because out of fear we have sat down and witness the greatest atrocities caused African people ever in the world and out of fear again our leaders are afraid to talk and so are we. We suffer from poverty, but all the things that make the west richer is from our continent. Why, because for far too long, we have been individual countries seeking for food, water and shelter for the night.

The time has come to say enough is enough, and to move the African people and continent to the next level. The youth, this is our time to prove to the world that yes indeed we are the leader of today. Rise up Africa, rise up and walk the talk. We need to build our next leaders; we need to build our media. I propose the African News Network and I entreat all of you to join. This is not going to be gagged media, but your thoughts and views, the truth unspoken, more so, to change the minds of our people towards the unity of Africa.
Rise up and walk the talk. If you are a web designer we will need one that will facilitate and design the web for the contribution of every member, if you are a journalist, broadcaster we need you to report and whatever field you find yourself, you have a part to play. Let us build the Africa we have all dreamt about. Africa has hope because Africa has you!

Friday, August 12, 2011

GUPS IN CRISES

The Ghana Union of professional students is in leadership crises. Currently the union has two president and the executives are divided.
Mr. Tafim Gbonka was elected as GUPS president in 2010 at Sunyani but his legitimacy was question due to GUPS constitutional requirements, he then took the issue to court and place an injunction on GUPS in order for them not to elect new president.
The general secretary Emefa Agonyo who was acting as the president organized GUPS congress and subsequently, they elected Mr. Jonas as the new GUPS president . After some few weeks of court battle between tafim and GUPS , Tafim finally won the case and the court instructed his reinstatement as the GUPS president.
Nine of the executives are now divided over who they should support, currently four of the executives are with Tafim and the rest of the five are with Jonas. Both the two president organized congress on the same day( 28 July 2011) to elect new executives for 2011-2012 year.
The BIG question that remains on the lips of all the professional students is what their fate is, since their union is now under threat and what is the way forward.

Tuesday, August 9, 2011

THUMPS UP TO THE PRESBY CHURCH


I am one of the few ones who condemned the recent “brouhaha” about the arrest of those who are engaged in the practice of homosexuality and lesbianism in my previews post. Apparently some people see me and call me names as if am part but am not disturbed by such rumor mongers.
In my condemnation I call for systematic approach of how to deal with this act of homosexuality, lesbianism and how we can join hands to fight it than calling for their arrest and making the act a criminal law in Ghana as if it is the only abominable act.

For now am so delighted, excited and joyous because the very people who condemn such act and made it look like the only sine that is barbaric and made themselves judges ( for God says do not touch my anointed does not mean they should not criticized them if they do the wrong things) have eaten their own words back. For these reasons join me and lets raise our THUMPS UP TO THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF GHANA and REVEREND EMANUEL MARTEY.

Recently, Reverend Martey was among those who strongly condemned the gay act calling it as filthy, unbiblical, and un-African. however I was shocked when he said all these things and ones again I asked myself which sine is biblical, which one is not filthy and which one is African sine

In today’s (9th Aug, 2011) publication on www.myjoyonline.com I read that The Presbyterian Church of Ghana is planning to establish centres throughout the country to provide counseling and therapy for its homosexual members The Moderator of the Church, Right Reverend Professor Emmanuel Martey, disclosed.

Let me confess that I was more than happy when I read these few lines in the publications and I must say the Right Reverend and a Professor must be congratulated for taking such a bold step. He again use the word(excommunicate) that was a bite beyond me and for that reason I cross checked and the meaning was splendid. The Reverend said “the church will not excommunicate anybody because they are homosexuals”. This simply means the church will not oust or exclude members or a group or membership by decree and am glad this church has taken this step as part of their work. I would like to encourage all the religious bodies to follow the footsteps of THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH and let all help fight the gay act in a good manner

Monday, August 8, 2011

"KETASANDLANDERS", THE PRIDE OF KETA


The Keta Sandlanders is a Division 2 football club side from Ghana located in the Keta Municipality with unique ambitions to develop their club and the community. The club was founded by Frank Cole in 2002. According to one of the managers of the club Desmond Apeku, the club was named after the town’s name “Keta” which literally means the top of the sand. he said the name “ sandlanders” was accepted because they realized that most African soccer was being played in the sand in the ancient days.

Mr. Desmond said the club is currently in division 2 in a middle league but lamented about the current situation where only the winner of the division 2 league can qualify to the division one league, he again explain that currently there are 88 divisions two teams divided into six mini leagues and the winner of the mini leagues have to meet with the rest of the winners in the mini league to qualify to division one. He there for appealed to the appropriate authorities to increase the number of teams that can qualify to the division one side.
“In the early days the sandlanders played matches with notable teams in Ghana to start their season, among this teams are Former African Champions Accra Hearts of Oak and their former opponent Kpando Heart of Lions

The club has embarked on a number of community projects and one of such project is the OMU that the club sighed with the National youth Council at Keta. This OMU includes providing work experience for Youth Council members and developing agricultural projects in the Keta community”, he said.

“Football in Keta goes back to the 1950′s when the Keta Highlanders played at the town’s London Park ground. Since this heyday, however, the game has been in decline in the area with London Park a victim of the coastal erosion which has devastated much of Keta town “ said clubs website

Sandlanders have developed a marketing strategy unique to a club from the developing world. an opportunity to market themselves on the same footing as wealthier sides, as long as the standard of football is good clubs will be able to create a profile for themselves and appeal to an audience which was previously out of reach.

Keta is a coastal town in Ghana, West Africa. Part of the Volta estuary region which stretches from the coast deep into country’s interior along the path of the Volta River, the town comprises several small islands and a complex of lagoons. The majority of Keta’s residents are Ewe, a tribe which dominates much of the Volta region and the neighbouring Republic of Togo.

Though a poor community which has suffered greatly from the impact of coastal erosion (during the 20th century more than half of what had been the area of the town – once a successful port – was washed away), the town and its surrounding area retain a charm and a strong sense of identity. The Keta Sea Defense Project was commissioned in 1999 (and completed in 2006) in an effort to stop the encroachment of the sea into the town and it is hoped that this will be a catalyst for the area to regenerate.

According to the clubs website, they hope that the growth of the Sandlanders will provide a further impetus for development, we intend to promote and develop the town alongside the club. 10% of all funds raised by the club will go straight to projects operating in the area – focusing primarily on education and health care – and through the team we aim to put some life back into this once thriving community.

Wednesday, July 20, 2011

THE CHRISTIAN COUNCIL AND FRED DEGBEY MUST COME AGAIN


I have been following the debate of homosexuals and lesbians, “if they should be allowed in Ghana”? and to be honest with you I find it interesting how some people are playing the argument alongside with politics and how others too are seeing it from the human right angle. Yes it is true that homosexuals and lesbianism is a bad practice and it must be stop before it spread like a wild fire.
I must confess that I have been called by a homosexual before but I simply told him my mind and it ended there. I must say that am not in support of Gays or homosexuality and I also know that that act is not good

The practice of homosexuality and lesbianism is so common in our senior high schools most especially the single sex schools but no one knew about it, one can here an issue or rumors about a school daughter sleeping with the school mum or the school son sleeping with the school dad ; recently when the daily graphic broke a story about a number of homosexuals located in the western region, this came with its own consequences. Some people called for the head of the editor of the paper to roll because they believe strongly that the story has no crediblity. Not long ago the Western Regional Minister called for the arrest of all the homosexuals and lesbians in the Western Region.

The Christian council led by their General Secretary Dr, Fred Deegbey organized a press conference and condemned the act and ask the good people of Ghana not to vote any politician who publicly support the act into office. He also stated that the practice is sinful and barbaric and must not be countenanced in the country. Dr, Fred Deegbey quoted Leviticus 18:22 of the bible: “Do not lie with a man as one lies with a woman”.

But I want to tell the Rev. Minister that the same bible says do not steal, do not fornicate, do no adultery and so on but yet we don’t see the Christian Council organizing press conference to castigate and condemned this issues and those who practice it. I am surprised at the way the Christian council is handling this issue, instead of us using an approach that will help our brothers and sisters who find themselves into this kind of practice, we rather castigate and we try to judge them. The Holy Bible: in Luke 6:7 “ do not judge and you will not be judged” again in John 8:7 “…. if anyone of you is without sin let him be the first to throw a stone …”. So with these scriptures I believe that both all sins are sins and none should be seen as barbaric and more sinful than the others and we should stop the castigations and the throwing of stones.

I believe that we should rather find a way of solving the Gay issue than we trying to judge them. I believe that they are humans like us and that they should be treated as such. The government of Ghana have given a hint of making this kind of practice a criminal law in Ghana like the others and I think it is fair enough.

Friday, July 15, 2011

Amnesty calls for investigation into the violence in Syria.

Amnesty international has accused Syria of crimes against humanity and calls for UN- backed investigation into violence in Syria.


The group has documented several cases of torture, deaths in custody and arbitrary detention in a new report. “The regime's crackdown on pro-democracy protesters may constitute crimes against humanity” says the group. they also called on the UN security council to refer Syria to the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the hague.


The deputy director of Amnesty Iternational’s middle east and North Afriica, Mr.Philip Luthur said the account they have heard from witnesses to events in Tell Kalakh paint a deeply disturbing picture of targeted abuses. Witnesses say at least nine people from Tell Kalakh died while in custody. Their bodies showed signs of torture, including cuts to the chest, slashes on the thighs and apparent gunshot wounds on the legs, Amnesty was told.


Since mid-March this year, President Bashar al-Assad has been fighting off serious challenge to his family’s four decades of rule. Syrian human rights groups have said that more than 1,350 civilians and 350 security personnel have been killed across the country since protests began in mid-March


mean while the Syrian government has not responded to the report, but it claims that many of those who have died were the victims not of the army, but of armed criminal gangs. Syrian state media has also reported on what it said was a large pro-government demonstration in Tell Kalakh late last month.


The Syrian authorities - who blame "armed gangs" and "terrorists" for the unrest - are pushing for a national dialogue next week. But the opposition has refused to participate while the violence continues.


Violence broke in Syria when Tunisia and Egypt revolution took place ,inspired by the revolution, the Syrian began protest in March with rallies calling for freedom in the southern border town of Deraa. But several people were killed when security forces opened fire on unarmed crowds. The unrest in Deraa quickly spread out of control, and then spread to other towns and cities. President Bashar al-Assad sent in tanks and troops to restore order, blaming "armed gangs and terrorists" for the unrest. Towns like Deraa, Homs and Douma were besieged for days. Hundreds were killed when snipers and tanks fired on unarmed protesters. Men were rounded up in night-time raids and electricity and communication lines were cut.

However, the protests have not yet taken hold in the capital Damascus or the second largest city Aleppo, which are under heavy security guard.


credit- bbc

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

ATO KWAMENA HAS FINALLY SPILT THE BEANS OUT

After weeks of rumors and hear says about his marriage, Ato Kwamena Dadzie has finally open up about his divorced saga. On his blog site, Ato as he is popularly known in the media stated it clearly that he didn't

regret his action of divorcing his wife and it was a mutual decision they both took.


" marriage has been one of the few ventures in my life that I committed and dedicated everything I had to. I gave it my all and I did everything I humanely could to make it work. It just wouldn’t work.

So both of us decided that we were better off going our separate ways for, as Lucky Dube said, it is “better to be alone and be happy than be with someone and be unhappy”.

It’s been one of the most difficult periods of my life and I am well and truly glad that it’s over. I am not bitter. I am not angry. I am not hurt. I don’t need pity from anyone. One day, when the complete story is told everyone will know that getting divorced was one of the best things that happened to me – after marriage. I kid you not!", he said.

Friday, July 8, 2011

GREAT AFRICAN LEADERS IN HISTORY


Africa has got leaders who really fought for their freedoms and libration from other invaders. We have great leaders which are divided into deferent categories in which they all demonstrated their ability of leadership qualities and themes. Some of them were unifiers, military leaders, religious leaders, empire builders, and women leaders

THE GREAT UNIFIERS:

Narmer (Ancient Egyptian - "Striker" who ruled in the 32nd century. Narmer was the first Pharaoh of Kemet (ancient Egypt) he was a great unifier because he unified both the northern and the southern part of Egypt into one empire. this evidence came by in the form of a palette found 1898 in Hierakonpolis which shows Narmer displaying the badge worn to show official position both Upper and Lower Egypt. Narmer's name was written phonetically by the hieroglyphicsymbol for a catfish and that of a chisel. Other variables of his name include "Narmeru" or "Merunar", but convention uses "Narmer". Like other First Dynasty Kings, his name is a single word ("The Striker") and may be shorthand for "Horus is the Striker". He married Neithhotep, a princess of northern Egypt. His name was at everywhere in Egypt including the vicinities Tarkharn to the south of Memphis
Piankhi was seen as the best ruler of the kingdom of Cush on the Upper Nile in what is now the northern Sudan. he succeeded his father, Kashta who founded Nubian Kingdom in Northern Sudan. He conquered lower Egypt when it was in crisis, he reigned from 741-ca. 712 B.C. he also built a number of temples in Egyptian style.

King Shabaka became pharaoh of Egypt and the 25th Nubian Dynasty (8th-7th centuries BC), invaded Egypt and made Memphis the capital. He established diplomatic relations with the Assyrian kings. The Nubian king is mostly identified with two large urei (cobras) placed over the king's forehead which signifies protections of the gods and kings from evil forces. When Shabaka came to the throne, Nubian history and Egyptian history become one, although certain the details are unclear. He was described as a just ruler by Herodotus , as someone who sentenced prisoners to public service in the form of dyke building for irrigation projects rather than condemn them to death. His death is unclear but he was buried in a tomb supplied with funerary goods, including vessels of various stones and finely worked articles of ivory and gold. His horses were also buried at el-Kurru, draped in beaded blankets and silver trappings.
Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile,Dietrich Wildung, 1997, p. 167
Daily Life of the Nubians, Robert Steven Bianchi, 2004

Queen Ahmose-Nefertari was celebrated as a warrior and a religious leader who helped to fight foreign invaders in the lower Egypt. Ahmose-Nefertari married her brother Ahmose I, as was customary in the Egyptian Royal Family at that time. She and her husbanbd ruled for 25 years She held many important titles and her husband bought for her the title of Second Prophet of Amen and gave it to her.She also held one of the most important tittles as the “God’s Wife” which is the high ranking tittle of a royal women, she was the only and the first to hold the tittle known as “God’s Wife of amen”. It has been believe that she helped her husband to build projects as it was being displayed on the alabaster quarries of Assiut and the limestone quarries at Memphis. When her hasband died she became the regent and ruled with his young son. She and her son Amenhotep I inaugurated the workman’s village at Deir el-Medina on the West Bank of the Nile at Luxor. it was believe that she died at the age of 65 as she outlive her son who died at the age of 35, both were worshiped as gods and Amenhotep I was known a ‘Lord of the Village.

GREAT AFRICAN GENIUSES

Imhotep was also celebrated as Doctor, Architect, High Priest, Scribe and Vizier to King Djoser. His name Imhotep simply means "the one that comes in peace". He was the second king of Egypt's third dynasty and reign from 2630–2611 BC. He was also seen as the world's first named architect who built Egypt's first pyramid. it was believed tht he may have had a hand in the building of Sekhemkhet's unfinished pyramid, and also possibly with the establishment of the Edfu Temple, his writings were in medical text, to further more he diagnosed and
treated over 200 diseases, 15 diseases of the abdomen, 11 of the bladder, 10 of the rectum, 29 of the eyes, and 18 of the skin, hair, nails and tongue. Imhotep treated tuberculosis, gallstones, appendicitis,gout and arthritis. He also performed surgery and practiced some dentistry. Imhotep made medicine from plants this was from Sir William Osler. After 100 years of his death he was elevated to a medical demigod and after 2000 years he was made full god, and replaced Nefertum in the great triad at Memphis. Imhotep was, together with Amenhotep, the only mortal
Egyptians that ever reached the position of full gods. he was later worshiped by the then early Christians. He was also worshiped even in Greece where he was identified with their god of medicine

RELIGIOUS REFORMERS

Amenhotep IV was better for his traditional religious leaderships by preferred Aten, the sun god that was worshipped in earlier times. He married non-royal blood who he called Nefertiti meanin “Beautiful is the Beauty of Aten.” He also changed his name to Akhenaten, meaning “He Who is of Service to Aten” Akhenaten’s innovation was to worship the Aten in its own right.
GREAT AFRICAN WOMEN IN POWER

Hatshepsut was the first female Pharaoh of Egypt who ruled in the 18th Dynasty. She married her own brother (Thuthmose II ) who ascended to the throne after his dad death and according to Egyptian tradition , to become a Pharaoh, the man had to marry a female of royal blood, often a sister, half sister or other near relative. Thuthmose II died leaving Hatshepsut and a son (Thuthmose III) by another wife who was too young to rule so Hatshepsut declared herself as the regent and later on made herself pharaoh in the history of Egypt. She continue the works of her father by repairing. most of her works and contributions were destroyed when Thuthmose III took over as Pharaoh when she died. She ruled for 20 years and no one knows if she was murdered, died or retired from politics to let Thuthmose III and her second daughter rule, but she disappeared when Thuthmose III became Pharaoh in his own right. Her body has not been found, so it is difficult to prove one way or another.

Queen Tiye was also another inspire ring woman from Egypt who was married to Amenhotep III, she was the mother Amenhotep IV all of Egypt. Married at an early age her husband gladly adored her and lavishly temples and artificial lakes were created in her name. she also changed the Egyptian fashion through her influence that she exerted in the kingdom and altered the royal view of a royal woman. She later became the Secretary General of state when her husband’s physical and mental powers deteriorated with age. With this position she maintain all the political powers and She averted key national crises. She also redirected political decisions to her attention when her son Akenhaton neglected his political duties.

Yaa Asantewa, the Queen Mother of Ejisu, was one of the female leaders who forght against forigen invaders. As a young woman and a queen she saw the fear in the eyes of her opposite sex chief and she declared war against the british who came for their king ( Asantehene) and were demanding for the powerful Asante stool which ( the Asante’s) hold there powere and strength. The war then bears her name and she made in roles into the british army. Eventhough she lost the war and was the last to be captured she was the one who open the door for the freedom for the Asantes and and gave the examples for other woriors to follow.

Queen Nzingha was another strong charismatic but brilliant military leader. Coming from Angola to be precise Ndongo kingdom, she rose to power in 17th antic slave trade was steadily growing, Queen Nzingah strongly opposed the trade but her own brother who was a king in the kingdom was involve in the trade. She later displayed her iron power at a conference to end the slave trade between the Portuguese when she was sent to represent the king. rather the whites offered sites to themselves and left the potential queen but quickly the royal carpet was roll for her and one of attendant made himself a seat available for her to sit down. In In 1623 she became the queen due to the death of his brother. immediately she became the queen she warned the portuegese to stop the trade despite the treaty that was signed, and warned of a possible war. she was the first black nationalist because she made her territories available escaping slaves and changed all the various ethnic and cultural differences of the people in the Angolan region . She sent her men into the Portuegeese army where they train and to spy their mode of operation and later got their strategy and later got hold of their weapons to fight them in return. In 1626 Nzingah’s strong hold Caunza was captured and forcing her to go into exile but while in exile she became the queen of Matamba. in 1627 she came back to recapture Caunza with a strong army and became the queen for the two nations. 1659 she signed a peace treaty with the Portuguese and spent the rest of her life reconstructing Angola she later died in 1663. Her legacy will never be forgotten in the fight against black history.
Queen Amina was also another military leader who was the daughter of Queen Bakwa, she was born in the hausaland of Zazzau which is now called Nigeria. at the age of 16 her military potentials were spoted and she was given the tittle magajiya. It was believe that Amina was the architect of the earthen walls around the city. Sultan Muhammad Bello of Sokoto stated that, "She
made war upon these countries and overcame them entirely so that the people of Katsina paid tribute
to her and the men of Kano [and]... also made war on cities of Bauchi till her kingdom reached to the sea
in the south and the west." Eventhough she never became a queen she reign from 1536 to 1573 she was a leading princess and she was the first in the Hausaland to own eunuchs and kola nuts

CANDACES OF MEROE

These are great women who led their people into battle against Alexander of Macedonia even in their old age

GREAT MILITARY LEADERS AND EMPIRE:

Shaka is a zulu word “ishaka” which means an intestinal beetle on which menstrual irregularities were usually blamed. The marriage didn't work out Nandi and Senzangakhona and so Shakazulu was born out of Marriage and it is conceded as a bad practice in the Zulu culture. Shaka and the mom were not welcome to the Elangeni tribe. out of suffering, humiliation and Shaka being called names like the farherless one and the rest, Shaka and the mom decided to move to Mthetwa tribe which was lead by Chief Dingiswayo, that is where Shaka trained to be a warrior for six years. At the age of 23 Dingiswayo saw the potentials in Shaka and made him the leader Mthetwa army. He trained the army with the strictest deciplined and a violation of his rules comes with death punishment. He changed the army’s weapons by shortening the spear and making the shield heavier, the army was made to train on bare foot to make them strong. He kills any of the worriors who return from war with a spear at his back because he believes that a warior have to run to his enemies first and face them not to turn his back and run away. Shaka revolutionize the army through his techniques. King Senzangakhona died in 1816. Shaka and his warriors went to take the kingdom by force because he knew he was royalty from what his mother had told him. Shaka continue to destroy and to win battles against other tribes who try to invade and he was well respected. When news came to Shaka that the mother was dead he executed 7000 people to be killed and 3 months months moaning of hunger and starvation was observed in the Zulu community in honor of the dead mother. with this treatment he lost control over the kingdom worios and enemies were rising against him. His half brother repeatedly stabbed him to death on 22nd 1828, he was belive to be 41 years old before his dearth. shaka left no child because he saw them as a potential rivals. Shakazulu’s father Senzangakhona who was a chieftain of a small clan of the Zulu community, Shaka lather succeeded the dad as a king. Senzangakhona married i6 wives, Shaka’s mom was the third and gave birth to 14 sons but the daughters are unknown. Senzangakhona means” he who acts with good reason” from the zulu language. He later died in 1816. Shakazulu’s mother was called Nandi kaBebe a child of a deceased chieftain of the Elangeni clan. She was Born in 1760 and died in 1827and Shaka was her only child was Shakazulu. She died a year before her own son (Shakazulu’s) death.
Obiri Yeboa was the founder of Kumasi, he was also the leader of the Oyoko clan the subset of the Akan peoples in the seventeenth century. He made Kumasi the capital over all the four states which includes Nsuta, Juaben, Bekwai, Kokofu and later Mampong, he again united the five states and made it asante union in 1660 and 1670 . He later proclaimed himself as the paramount chief of the asante union. Obiri Yeboa died in battle sometime in 1670
He was later succeeded by the nephew called Osei Tutu. He and his priest friend Okomfo Anokye introduced the Asante Golden Stool as a religio-political symbol of the unity of the Oyoko union, he also provided the union with a constitution and made the asantehene the absolute ruler of the empire. 1699 and 1701 he defeated Empire of Denkyira in a war and gain access to the Elmina castle and became a major player in the slave and gun trade. He also incorporated the Akims into the union in 1701 and later died in the Akim war.He was succeeded by his nephew who was a great warrior called Opoku Ware, Between 1723 and 1744 he conquered Bono-Tekyiman to the north, Akim, Akwamu, Akwapim, and the Ga-Adangbe states to the South and Accra to the coast. From 1744 to 1746 Asante defeated Gonja and Dagomba in the Volta Basin and died in 1750. succeeded by Kusi Obodum, his uncle who changed all the hereditary positions and made it appointive post. The empire continue to grow under the Osei Kwame (1777-1801) and Osei Bonsu (1801-1824). The empire reached its peak under the latter Asantehene.

Sundiata was the youngest of eleven males. He was born to Nare and his second wife Sogolon Conde as a cripple After the death of his father, Sundiata and his mother fled to Malinke where they were offered refuge. Sumanguru of the Kante Dynasty killed and started rulling Mali. Sundiata grew stronger and began to rule the Mali Kingdom while steadily gaining power and troop strength. In 1235, Sundiata and Sumanguru met in battle. Both were sorcerers and thier magic would determine the outcome. Sundiata had the strongest power and he defeated Sumanguru. He was then declared as the founder of Mali empire.
These great African leaders played IMPORTANT roles in their respective counties, empires and kingdoms. They also portrayed some common character traits or actions that made their personality unique .


REFERENCES

THE GREAT UNIFIERS:
http://www.prntrkmt.org/pharaoh/narmer.html
http://encycl.opentopia.com/term/Narmer
www.crystalinks.com/narmer.html
http://www.answers.com/topic/king-piankhi
http://wysinger.homestead.com/nubian58.html
http://hubpages.com/hub/Queen-Ahmose-Nefertari-Mother-of-the-Eighteenth-Dynasty-of-Ancient-Egypt
GREAT AFRICAN GENIUSES
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/imhotep.htm
RELIGIOUS REFORMERS
http://www.touregypt.net/18dyn10.htm
GREAT AFRICAN WOMEN IN POWER
http://www.touregypt.net/historicalessays/hatshepsut.htm
http://blackhistorypages.net/pages/tiye.php
http://www.blackhistorypages.net/pages/asantewa.php
http://www.knowyourblackhistory.com/queen-nzingha-of-angola/
http://www.blackhistorypages.net/pages/amina.php
http://wysinger.homestead.com/candace.html
GREAT MILITARY LEADERS AND EMPIRE:
www.zulu-culture-history.com/shaka_zulu_life.htm
http://www.suite101.com/content/foundation-and-rise-of-the-asante-empire-a327613#ixzz1L6InKOO6
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sundiata_Keita

Tuesday, July 5, 2011

OLD FADAMA FIGHTS HIV AIDS

HIV/AIDS affect many people in many countries in Africa. According to the 2009 HIV sentinel survey, an estimated 267.069 people live with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Old Fadama, an Accra slum community with a population of over 79,000 people Is not exempt from the problem. In response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the government of Ghana aids commission which coordinates the efforts of international organizations, NGOS and other parties to educate Ghanaians about prevention and treatment throughout the nation.


However, because the government does not recognize the residents of old Fadama as legal citizens of Ghana, national HIV/AIDS campaigns and programmes do not reach the community. So, they organized one on their own. Members of the old Fadama development association (OFADA) have organized and run HIV/AIDS activities and programs for the people of old Fadama since the early 1980s (when old Fadama was first established).
According to Mr. Imoro Toyibo, the OFADA secretary and a local HIV/AIDS activist, the association members normally perform dances and dramas to educate their peers about the dangers of HIV and AIDS- how it is transmitted and how to protect yourself from it. Through this visual form of education, even illiterate community members are able to understand the important messages. Since starting their programs, Toyibo cannot recall any recent cases of infected residence and can only confirm one case where a Local died from HIV/aids four years ago.
The greater Accra region has an HIV/AIDS infection rate of 3.5%- the third highest rate in the country after the eastern region and with the highest prevalence level of 4.2% a3.9%. HIV/AIDS prevalence is generally higher in urban areas
employable skills they were forced to enter the sex industry to make ends meet.
“Most of these girls do not know anything about hiv/aids.” Says shei. “ sometimes they get to know about it(hiv/aids awareness) if we are doing our campaigns”. He says.
Shei also identify the kayayei population and other traders as risky groups who contribute to the spread ofhiv/aids in old fadama. People who do not reside in the slum but only come and go for a few days and don’t bother to check their hiv status. But without any form of government health monitoring agencies or proper censuss information In old fadama, it is
“ you know our community here is slum and we do not take record of who comes in and out and that has been our major concern,” says shie. With the help of American Jewish world service ,an international ngo,ofada members were able to get access to condoms which the ngo also helped distribute to brothels,sex workers and ten public outlets in the community. But, they still need more support.


The ofada hiv/aids activists all the work on a voluntary basis. They have other jobs in addition to their activism work in order to in order to make a living. Despite their best best efforts, they simply do not have the time, proper resources or manpower to run effective ,wide reaching hiv/aids campaigns.
Ghana is committed to achieving the united nations millilenium development goals including target 6.A to “ have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS”. This applies to all citizens of Ghana, including those living in old Fadama. Toyibo calls on the government to support the people of old Fadama in their fight against HIV/AIDS. “ we want the government and more especially the Ghana aids commission and other health organizations to help us” he says. “we need testing and counseling at least every month.” still, with or without the government’s help, members of OFADA say they will continue running their programmes in the effect to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in old Fadama

Thursday, June 30, 2011

KETASCO BASIC IN CRISIS

Students of Ketasco Basic in the keta MUnicipality is at the mercy of the weather due to the lack of classroom structures .
In a letter to Ketasco Basic Old Students Association (KEBOSA) , the headmaster Lewiss Amedome pleaded to the association to come to the aide of their alma matter. He said the school lacks so many structures like classroom blocks for the junior high students, computer lab, library, electrification and painting of the class rooms.
Mr. Amedorme said, currently the three junior high students have their classes under a dilapidated palm leave structure and sometimes they don’t have classes at all if the weather frowns on them. “ this is affecting both the students and the teachers academically” he said. He then call on , philanthropist, cooperates bodies, NGOs and the government to come to their aide.
The school which bears the name of “ketasco” from its high school which is Keta senior High School was the best basic school in the keta Municipality. Records from the BECE performance from 1991 shows that the school is on track in attaining the right aggregates, till date their performance is one of the best in the region and in Ghana.
the school has won so many excellence awards in so many categories like sports, quizzes, debates , music and cultural festivals.

this is what is used as a classroom

Friday, June 10, 2011

VOTE; GLORIA APPIAH-KUBI

“BEHIND EVERY SUCCESSFUL TEAM/PRESIDENT THERE IS AN ACTIVE AND A DETERMINED SECRETARY”. And that is what I stand here for.
Mr. Chairman, Speaker of Congress (Honorable William Bossman), the SRC president ( Tamimu Issah, the outgoing SRC executives, fellow aspirants, colleague students, ladies and gentlemen. It has always be my passion to serve student and work hard in a team which the AUCC SRC is no exceptional. With this accord, I am highly honored and pleased to have you all here to witness and question my decision for becoming the next General Secretary for 2011/2012 academic year. And as well seek your mandate to be able to work to that effect.
First of all I cannot proceed without applauding and congratulating Miss Christine Ampadu the outgoing General Secretary for her hard work and effort she put up as a General Secretary but I must say that I am ever ready to take over from her and take the entire student to the next level in order to experience a sound secretarial management.
Mr. Chairman, I stand here very much impressed by the current administration for their laudable efforts. But there is a proverb in akan that says that “etire nte y3 aa , yengyae 3ky3 soa” literally means that as far as the head remains, it will forever carry loads on it. It is to this however that I think there is much to be done in order to fix and maintain the secretarial status of the SRC office. At the moment, the SRC cupboard which is used for safe keeping of our documents is in a bad shape and so, cannot serve its rightful purpose.
ladies and gentlemen if I am given the mandate as your General secretary, I will make sure that I furnish the cupboard and give it a proper identity whereby each individual executive would have a subsection in the cupboard to keep documents and other materials such as files and things belonging to his or her office. Mr. Chairman, this is what I want the cupboard to be used for when I become the G.S.

Ladies and Gentlemen, You all will bear with me that the General Secretary is responsible for the keeping of accurate records of all proceedings of congress and executive meetings in which writing of minutes of all meetings are no exceptional. I must again congratulate the General Secretary for maintaining a strong notebook which is used for the taken of the minute. That is good though but each one of us gathered here today would attest to the fact that we are in an improved technological era where technology has made everything possible and easy. Thus new ways should be employed to keep things up to standard. It is for this reason that when I become the General Secretary of the AUCC SRC I would introduce what I call an E-MINITE (electronic minute). Whereby minutes of all meetings as well as every other records and proceedings of the SRC would be done and kept on a computer which could as well serve as a backup in case of any mishap.
Mr. Chairman I have titled my manifesto as THE STUDENT FIRST AGENDA. I am saying this because students need more attention more than any other person in this great institution. And as such, students should be placed first in terms of information, communication, welfare, and other things of importance. It is for this reason that if I become the General Secretary I would team up with the public relations officer to ensure the proper dissemination of information. Making sure the information on the notice board is clearly figured out. This would be done by making sure that outdated notices are cleared making way for current information. Then again in this technological era where the internet have made all things possible, it would be appropriate to open a page on facebook which is AUCC SRC FORUM where people would come on board to discuss issues bothering them and as well using that medium for disseminating information to individuals who join that page. So I would entreat each and every student here to join that page and take it serious when it is established.
Mr. chairman, to make a follow up to the point I just made, the suggestion box which was the initiative of the outgoing General Secretary would be taken over and would be made effective when I become the General Secretary of the AUCC SRC so that student can channel their grievances, concerns and issues to the SRC.
Mr. Chairman since the duties of the General Secretary is solely an office duty, I would establish a venture where we would be selling AUCC SRC Branded stationeries such as books, files and pens, and other things that would enhance student activities as seen in other universities when I become the General Secretary.
To conclude Mr. Chairman, I would like to end my speech by leaving you with this proverb that “a car can never and would never move unless you drive and move it”. Drive me towards becoming the next General Secretary and your administrative luggage would be secured.
LONG LIVE AUCC SRC LONG LIVE ITS SECRETARIALSHIP.
THANK YOU.

Friday, February 25, 2011

LAWS THAT ARE INIMICAL TO A COMMUNICATOR


REVIEW OF THE CONSTITUTION
The constitution of Ghana is the operating system and regulatory tool of the government. It is by it that every president must go by. . It is the supreme governing rules of the land, and by it all leaders or heads of state are to rule. And with this we always say “ nobody is above the law”
The constitution of the land touches on every sector of operation in the country of which the media is also part. The media is a prior sector, because of the role it plays in the lives of the citizens. The media informs, educates and entertains. Historically, has faced so many harsh and unfriendly regulations from political parties and many influential people, through their various political strategies, ranging from the registration, censorship to the constitutional provisions; its been just a mere bureaucratic and phrase logical, when it comes to the government and the media.
It is against this that an individual or group of people are lucking some ingredient in terms of good communications in the media. to furthermore, this is hindering them of getting the right of information for the public. Eg is the information bill which is about to be pass.
Article 162(2) of the 1992 constitution states that ‘’there shall be no law requiring any person to obtain a license as a pre-requisite to the establishment or operation of a newspaper, journal or other media of mass communication or information.” Article 162(4) even spice up the media freedom and independence , by providing that “editors and Publishers of newspapers and other institutions of the mass media shall not be subject to the control or interference by the government, nor shall they be penalized or harassed for their editorial opinions and views, or the content of their publications”. But this is not being practice in real terms, we can see it in our daily lives how some editors are being harassed and denied of their fundamental human right.
, these prescriptions make much sense when the fundamental Human Rights and freedoms of the state is applied here, because Article 21(1) states that “all persons shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression which shall include freedom of the press and other media”. Before the advent or at the time of coming into force of the constitutional provisions, there were some number of state-owned media institutions, so Act 163 was included to ensure that they afford fair opportunity and facilities for the presentation of divergent view and dissenting opinions. This provision thus re-enforces Act 55(11) which states that the state “shall provide fair opportunities to all political parties to present their programmers to the public by ensuring equal access to the state owned media”. This article too is not active because during political season all political parties did not get the chances to have their programmers aired. One political party which is the ruling party always dominate and is like they control the public broadcasting corporation.
For monitoring duties, Article 166 of the constitution makes provision for the establishment of a national media commission – charged with the duties of
• Insulating the state-owned media from government control
• maintenance of professional media standards and ethics
• Adjudication – through its complaints committee in connection with disputes which might arise from complaints made against the press
• Lastly to make regulations by constitutional instrument for the regulation of newspapers and other publications. Even though the media commission is there to regulate the public broadcasting system they are lucking the man power and resources to do that. And they don’t take strict actions against media organizations who goes against the laws.
The constitution holds that the media commission shall not exercise any control over the professional functions of media personnel.
To start it all journalism is the act of gathering information and packaging it for dissemination of the public.
Journalism has certain limitations, which could either be traditional, nominal or strict-imposition of government license as a pre condition for publication. Traditionally, the limitations of journalism which we believe in determines the smooth operations of journalist, which I am of no exception may include – laws of defamation, contempt of court, sedition, laws about official secrets, criminal libel, rumors of false report, obscene publications and invasion of privacy etc. The draft constitution by the committee of experts explains that “as things stands now, there is a direct governmental interference in or control of the operations of the press.
The ministerial power of appointment and dismissal of reporters and governmental interference in media operations have greatly contributed to the erosion of the freedom and independence of the press and media in Ghana. – To combat this, and make the journalism operations smooth - the media commission should be independent and must perform the functions now perform by the Ministry of Information to further this most of the workers at the ministry of information are mostly political appointees mostly the rulling parties. Also, owing Ghanaian Corporations, there is a third category which is a corporation managing state owned media but it cannot be lumped together and treated as a corporation set up for commercial purposes. some stakeholders of this country are being denied access to the public broadcasting against their freedom of expression.
Regulations and laws that kills the interested foreign broadcasters in Ghana by the National Commissions Authority is inimical to journalism, because Ghana is not all that matured in telecommunications and we need foreign ones here, so we can learn or better still, be the best among all, so if they are been prevented to operate by some regulational acts that are strict, it will go against journalism in Ghana.
The legal system is inimical in a way because, the courts Act 1993 (Act 459) was amended by Act 464 to enable a judge of the circuit court to try criminal cases with the same prerogatives, and the effect is that, until its repealed the chief justice can empower a Circuit Court Judge by administrative direction to sit on criminal cases as a circuit court judge of old but this old system was a failure. Man has been said to be imperfect, in the sense that all men are known to be fallible beings, and so sometimes the animal side of man always pop up in our daily routine duties, but the laws of defamation are so crucial and critical that in the discharge of one’s duties as a journalist, he might be victimize by an unintentional comment or phrase of impunity, or it might even discourage the journalism work. In the case of the sedition, the laws of Ghana are somehow restrictive more than that of the west, where much of our know-how and tools with its standards of all originate, and that is as well inimical. Lord Diplock in Gleaves v. Deakin (1979) 2 All ER 497 at 498 said on the issue of criminal libel that “the truth of the defamatory statement is not in itself a defense… on the contrary, even though no public interest can be shown to be injuriously affected by imparting to an individual, the publisher of the information must be convicted unless he himself can prove to the satisfaction of a jury that the publication of it was for the public benefit… and this ruling has ever been considered a great proceedings, so I consider it inimical to we as a journalist.
In the case of .R. Amponsah, there was an issue of a Sri Lanka National who wanted to bribe his way through with the intention of taking over the mineral right in Ghana, and was deported when this was published, there was a problem of rumours and false report, so they accused was charged not only with sedition but also with publishing a false statement likely to cause fear and alarm to the public - and both charges arose from the same speech, he was acquainted on both court, so that also make it inimical.
obeying the law. Even with this, there are court rules that fight against these ethics of the press, by strict insistence on journalistic documents for court verification. This is also inimical to my pursuit in communication.
The law of confidence states that the man shall not profit from wrongful publication of information received by him in confidence. It is a product of equity or equality. The official secrets act since the spy catcher case, act 1989 makes it an offence for a member of the security and intelligence services or a person who has been notified that the act applies to him to disclose information by virtue of his membership of the said service, but it’s the public’s interest that must be protected here and not the service, because, sometimes it is in the public interest that people should be left alone or that certain secrets are kept away from the general public in the interest of the general public safety.
The others which include states secrets act (act 101), the criminal code, act 29 on obscene publications and invasion of privacy are as well inimical to the profession of communication or journalism in Ghana. In conclusion I think both the government and the profession work for public interest so that is what should be. Thank God the information law bill has just passed through cabinet and it is my hope that this very law will open doors for gathering information for the dissemination of the public.

Sunday, February 13, 2011

LESSONS FROM EGYPT REVOLUTION

He is well known as the emperor of Egypt and many fear him as a result of what brought him into power. He has been on the highest seat for close to 30 years without any major problem.
But recently he was swept by the wave of strong Egypt revolution which was motivated by Tunisia. At first he resisted it by warning the innocent youth who were resisting his tyrannical rule that they will face the full rigors of the law.
The fact of the case is that when his own people were resisting him, he was threatening them. it has been believed that he is a descendant of the Pharaoh generation, so I believe that the blood of the four fathers were transferred to him either spiritually , emotionally or socially.
His removal from the highest office of the ancient land by the Egyptians must be a lesson to all of us, both politicians and other leaders must know that one cannot choose a comfortable bed for himself all the time or in other words everyday cannot be a market day.
We were all part of the revolution that took place in Egypt even though we were not there physically but rather we were there in spirit and in technology. The Egyptians made their woes known and the world responded through the use of facebook and twitter. This two social network have become so powerful in thems of technology advancement and I really want to congratulate the Egyptians for using it even though the tyrannical leader tried to block internet access during the revolution, it is always true that the world is a global village.
Leadership is not a race that one have to allow people to die before they know what is what is right or wrong to their followers. People or civilians are like Chameleons they van change at any time so my fellow leaders don’t be swollen headed and become autocratic when a group of people run after you to cheer you just because you are in control and famous.
Just let the God that you worship be your Guidance and direct you in your leadership, and try to listen to the people who brought you into power. Indeed Abraham Lincoln define democracy as «Government of the people, by the people, for the people»
Feb 11 - exact same day as Nelson Mandela was released, 21 years and history has been made again in egypt. Extraordinary - Feb 11 is also day royal regime officially collapsed in Iran in 1979 and still known as 'Islamic Revolution's Victory Day
The question that remains on the Lips of everybody is WHO IS NEXT TO FOLLOW MUBARAK???

Saturday, January 29, 2011

MARCUS GARVEY AND THE BLACK STAR LINE


WHAT WAS THE MOTIVE BEHIND THE BLACK STAR LINE ?
At the end of this centennial year for Marcus Garvey, Jamaica would have conceded three important event that are significant to his cultural legacy for black majority political and economic power.
The Black Star Line was a shipping compay established by Marcus Garvey, founder of the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association). The shipping line was supposed to facilitate the movement of goods and African Americans throughout the African global economy. It derived its name from the White Star Line, a line whose success Garvey felt he could emanate, which would become a standard of his Back-to-Africa movement. It was one among many businesses which the UNIA originated.
The Black Star Line and the Black Cross Navigation and Trading Company, function between 1919 and 1922. It stands today as a major symbol for Garvey followers and African Americans in search of a way to get back to their homeland.
The Black Star Line started in Delaware on June 23, 1919. Having a majority capitalization of $500,000, BSL stocks were sold at UNIA conventions at five dollars each. The company's losses were estimated to be between $630,000 and $1.25 million.
The Black Star Line surprised all its critics and opponent when, three months after being in operation, the first of four ships, the SS Yarmouth was bought with the intention of it being rechristened the Frederick Douglass. The Yarmouth was a coal ship during the First World War, and was in bad structure when it was bought by the Black Star shipping company. Once reconditioned, the Yarmouth sail for three years between the U.S. and the West Indies as the first Black Star Line ship with black crew and a black captain. Later Joshua Cockburn, the captain was accuse of bribery and corruption
The SS Yarmouth was not the only ship bought in bad structure and to be completely expensive. Marcus Garvey spent extra $200,000 for more ships. The SS Shadyside, sailed on the Hudson River one summer and sank, the next fall because of a leak many thought to be sabotage. Another was a steam yacht once owned by Henry Huttleston Rogers. Booker T. Washington had been an honored guest aboard the ship when it was owned by his friend and confidant, Rogers, and was known as the Kanawha. However, Rogers had died in 1909, and the once maintained yacht had also served in the first World War. Renamed by the Black Star Line the SS Antonio Maceo, blew up and and killed a man off the Virginia coast on its first sailing from New York to Cuba, and had to be towed back to New York.
Besides oversold, poorly conditioned ships, Black Star Line was beset by corruption of management and infiltration by agents of J. Edgar Hoover's Bureau of Investigation (the forerunner to the FBI), who – according to historian Winston James – sabotaged it by throwing foreign matter into the fuel, damaging the engines.[1] The first commission for the Yarmouth was to haul whiskey from the U.S. to Cuba before Prohibition. Although the ship made it in record time, it did not have docking arrangements, so it lost money sitting in the docks of Cuba while longshoremen had a strike. A cargo-load of coconuts rotted in the hull of a ship on another voyage because Garvey insisted on having the ships make ceremonial stops at politically important ports.
The Black Star Line stopped it operations in February 1922. It is seen as a better option of achievement for African Americans of the time, despite the thievery by employees, engineers who overcharged, and the Bureau of Investigation's acts of infiltration and sabotage.
Marcus Garvey who is popularly called "black Moses" during his lifetime, created the largest African American organization, with hundreds of chapters across the world at its height. While Garvey is remembered as Africa proponent, it is clear that the scope of his ideas and the UNIA’s actions go beyond that characterization.
Marcus Garvey's ideas originated with African Americans during the postwar period. At the center of Garvey's program was a strong backing on black economic self-reliance, black people’s rights and freedom to political self-determination, and the founding of a black nation on the continent of Africa.
Perhaps the biggest achievement of the UNIVERSAL NEGRO IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION (UNIA,) was the Black Star shipping Line, an enterprise intended to provide ways for African Americans to return to Africa while also enabling black people around the Atlantic to exchange goods and services. The company’s three ships (one called the SS Frederick Douglass) were owned and operated by black people and made travel and trade possible between their United States, Caribbean, Central American, and African stops. The economically independent Black Star Line was a symbol of pride for blacks and seemed to attract more members to the UNIA.
As an outcome of a bigger financial responsibility and managerial errors, the Black Star Line failed in 1921 and ended operations. Early in 1922 Garvey was charged on mail fraud charges regarding the Black Star Line's stock sale. Garvey was sentenced to prison but released after serving three years in federal prison. He was deported to Jamaica. In the United States Garveyism was the development of the black attitude and pride at the center of the twentieth-century freedom and movement.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey the name that continues to evoke the inspire slogan: "Up you mighty race, you can accomplish what you will."
Marcus Garvey was born in St. Ann's Bay on Jamaica's north coast. He was the youngest of eleven children. His parents were said to be of unmixed Negroid stock. And his father was a descendant of the Maroons, escaped slaves who fought fierce guerilla battles for their liberation in the Jamaican mountains. He was also largely self educated and possessed a large library from which young Marcus began his early reading. Young Marcus was very proud of the Maroon linage he inherited from his father.
Garvey dropped out of school early due to financial troubles and he took a job as a printer apprentice to his godfather. This allowed him to develop the journalistic skills that proved beneficial later. He went to Kingston to further his craft and began to experience first hand the discrimination of Blacks in the trades. Whenever he went to the British authorities to seek justice he found them to be indifferent to the plight of his fellow Blacks. He concluded from that, and other similar experiences, that Blacks could never get equal treatment from whites.
Garvey became involved in organizing to help Blacks improve their lot. Realizing that his efforts would require more money, he went to Costa Rico where his uncle helped him get a job as timekeeper on a banana plantation. Here too he realized the deplorable conditions of Blacks. He became involved in radical journalism and reform in order to address these concerns. His uncle became disenchanted with his efforts and sent him to Panama. There too Garvey noticed similar conditions for Blacks. He traveled throughout several countries in the area and found similar conditions for his people. Illness brought him back to Jamaica.
In 1912 he decided to go to London to learn about the conditions of Blacks in other parts of the British Empire. There he became associated with the Egyptian nationalist Duse Mohammed Ali, and he wrote for his monthly magazine African Times and Orient Review. He also met other young Black students from Africa and the West Indies, African nationalists, sailors, and dock workers. From them he received information about the condition of Blacks throughout the world. He became an avid reader on African subjects. One of the books he read,Up From Slavery by Booker T. Washington, sparked his determination to become a race leader.
Garvey returned home to Jamaica in 1914 with ambitious plans to uplift the race. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement and Conservation Association and African Community League, shortened to the Universal Negro Improvement Association (U.N.I.A.), for the purpose of "drawing the peoples of the race together." Among the objectives of the Association was:
...to establish Universities, Colleges and Secondary Schools for the further education and culture of the boys and girls of the race; to conduct a world-wide commercial and industrial intercourse.
(U.N.I.A. Manifesto, Booker T. Washington MSS, Library of Congress.)
The motto of the Association was both inspirational and succinct: "One God! One Aim! One Destiny!"
Garvey received support from oppressed Blacks and some whites, but little or none from well-to-do Blacks and mulattoes. He soon felt the need to go to the United States to raise funds. He had been in touch with Booker T. Washington about his ideas toward educating his people. However Washington died before he could make his trip to the U.S. In 1916 when he did leave for the U.S. he prophesied to his followers to "Look to Africa for the crowning of a Black king, he will be the Redeemer." This prophesy was to have a profound effect on the later spiritual movement of the Rastafarians. [See the footnotes of the section on Haile Selassie.]
When Garvey arrived in the U.S. he stayed with a Jamaican family in Harlem. He found work as a printer and saved enough money to begin a fundraising tour throughout the United states. Garvey's whirlwind tour began in Harlem and proceeded through thirty-eight states. Harlem had recently become converted into the Black section of New York City and the virtual capital of the Black world. So when he returned to New York he chose to set up his headquarters there. Garvey moved into the center on Harlem stage with all the ease and self-confidence of a man with a mission. He took to the streets, joining the soapbox and stepladder orators and form political alliances with some of Harlem's most prominent radicals.
Garvey's first two attempts to establish a New York chapter of the U.N.I.A. with headquarters in Jamaica were sabotaged by socialists and Republicans who wanted to turn it into a political club. In his third attempt he had formed a cadre of thirteen like minded souls. This one too had its divisions but Garvey was able to weather the storm. And when Garvey decided to stay in the United States the U.N.I.A. was incorporated in the state of New York on July 2, 1918.
A month or so later the U.N.I.A.'s newspaper Negro World, initially edited by Garvey, appeared. It would eventually become the most widely circulated paper of its kind and the bane of European colonialist. Garvey embarked on a second fundraising tour. In November he reportedly held a meeting in New York of five thousand people. And by the next year, 1919, he was firmly established as one of Harlem's most important figures.
During 1919 and 1920 the U.N.I.A experienced spectacular growth. In the midst of the contemporary Black disillusionment Garvey thundered his famous slogan and battle cry: "Up, you mighty race! You can accomplish what you will." The Black masses responded by the thousands. New U.N.I.A. chapters were established in most of the American cities with significant Black populations. By the summer of 1919 Garvey had raised enough money to purchase a large auditorium which he renamed Liberty Hall. Other chapters would establish similar sites that would become headquarters for race redemption and bastions of Black freedom.
Earlier that year Garvey had begun speaking of Black owned and operated steamships that would link Black peoples of the world , uniting the Black Diaspora to the African Motherland. This daring proposal quickly captured the imagination of many of the Black masses. Money was raised to purchase ships for the promised Black Star Line. However, the attorney general of New York warned Garvey not to sell stock unless the enterprise was a legitimate business. Garvey then incorporated the black Star Line in the state of Delaware where the laws were more liberal.
Many laughed at Garvey's attempt to develop a ship line. But Garvey pushed on and in mid-September announced the viewing of the first ship the S.S. Yarmouth. Two more ships were to follow. They were not in the best of shape, and the price paid for them far exceeded their value. Even though the purchases were ill advised, they instilled pride and enthusiasm among his followers and many of the Black masses worldwide. And support for the Black Star ship line continued to pour in.
The Black Star Line was but one of Marcus Garvey's visions for leading his people to economic independence. He established the Negro Factories Corporation, capitalized at one million dollars under a Delaware charter. In practice, the corporation usually lacked funds to lend to ambitious Black entrepreneurs, but it helped to develop a chain of cooperative grocery stores, a restaurant, steam laundry, tailor and dressmaking shop, millinery store, and a publishing house.
With Garvey's successes arose the suspicions of his adversaries. Some of his opposition was from shear jealousy while some was honest and logical. Among the later was raised concerns about his business practices and many of them felt that his followers would lose their meager earnings. Among those questioning Garvey's methods was W.E.B. Du Bois and there would be bitter exchanges between them.
Garvey pushed on. In late 1919 he issued a call for the first international convention of the U.N.I.A. to be held in August of 1920. Delegates were to come from throughout the Black world. The Garveyites planned the convention carefully and by any measure it was a resounding success and a magnificent affair.
There were parades and pageantry of the uniformed African Legion, and the Black Star Nurses, and the children's auxiliary marching beside their elders. Business came to a standstill and the parade was the talk of Harlem for months. Now the world began to take notice of Marcus Garvey as the event instilled a sense of pride and awe throughout the Black world.
The 1920 convention produced a "Declaration of the Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World." It compiled grievances of the delegates against the wrong and injustices of Negro people; is demanded and insisted upon certain rights; etc. Perhaps the most enshrined legacy of that convention was the presentation of the "Red, Black, and Green" flag and the symbolism of its colors: red for the "color of the blood which men must shed for their redemption and liberty," black for "the color of the noble and distinguished race to which we belong," and green for "the luxuriant vegetation of our Motherland."
By 1921 Garvey was unquestioned leader of the largest organization of this type in the history of the world. And with his success came the rise in scrutiny and criticism from his opponents. The US government considered him subversive because of his radicalism; European governments viewed him as a threat to their colonies; communist felt he kept Black workers from their ranks; civil right organizations were against him because he argued that white segregationist were the true spokesmen for white America and he advocated Black separatism.
Some of Garvey's troubles came from within his organization from both unscrupulous opportunist and from the lack of business acumen. The un-seaworthiness of the ships they had purchased was beginning to take a financial toll trying to keep them afloat. Finally on January 12, 1921, the US government, using the fact that the U.N.I.A. had used the postal services to sell stock for their ship line, levied charges against him for alleged mail fraud.
During his trial, Garvey had dismissed his attorney and pled his on case. He gave a dazzling display of oratory. But in the end the jury found him guilty and he was given the maximum penalty five years, $1000 fine, and costs. While out on bail he sought to show his strength. He raised $160,000 and bought a modern first class ship, which he christened the Booker T. Washington. It sailed to the West Indies after a great sendoff in New York City, but was seized upon its return and sold to settle judgments that had accumulated against him.
Garvey had sought an appeal from the U.S. Supreme Court but lost and was taken to Atlanta penitentiary. All attempts for a pardon failed, but in 1927 President Coolidge commuted his sentence and he was deported to Jamaica. While there he won a seat on the city council and continued his agitation. And later went to London and continued his efforts there also. He never regained his former stature, but he continued speaking and agitating until his health began to fail. On July 10,1940 Marcus Mosiah Garvey died.
The flag of Ghana was designed by Mrs. Theodosia Okoh to replace the flag of the United Kingdom upon attainment of independence in 1957. It was flown until 1959, and then reinstated in 1966. It consists of the Pan-African colors of red, yellow, and green, in horizontal stripes, with a black five-pointed star in the centre of the gold stripe. The black star was adopted from the flag of the Black Star Line, a shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey and gives the Ghana national football team their nickname, the Black Stars
Conclusion
In conclusion the Black Star Line had a profound effect on America, giving the blacks the opportunity to invest in stock was new to the America country, and thus gave them a modernized way of investing their money. Also it shows that blacks could act as successful business men and contribute economically to America. The fact that the Black Star Line was an independent black movement showed that blacks were capable of organizing international businesses.
Once scorned by the Jamaican power structure, Garvey is regarded today as the father of Jamaican independence. The capital city of Kingston named a road after him. The government brought his remains home and laid them to rest in a Marcus Garvey National Shrine. Marcus Mosiah Garvey is now officially regarded a Jamaica's first national hero. And his likeness now adorns Jamaican currency.The social and cultural results of the Black Star Line were unheard of in the 1920s, and consequently presented blacks with more economic and social opportunities than ever before.
The black star line also created a great impact on the mind of the black of unity, they. Marcus Garvey throught his black star line incorporation inspired most of the blacks to stand on thire own and fight for their right . He gave the way or open the broadways for pan-africanism and pave way for Africa revolution and the first national hero of Jamaica.

Reference
wikipedia.org/wiki /Black_Star_Line
www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/
Marcus Garvey’s cultural legacy by Jimmy Tucker (17-18)
books.google.com.gh/books
www.duboislc.org/ShadesOfBlack/MarcusGarvey.
acapella.harmony-central.com/archive/
www.reggaeboyzsc.com
www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a.../garveyblackstar.htm

Tuesday, January 25, 2011